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Cause and effect


Adverbs of cause and effect

because

· They received a high mark on their exam because they had studied hard.

· I'm studying hard because I want to pass my exam.

· He works a lot of overtime because his rent is so expensive

Notice how because can be used with a variety of tenses based on the time relationship between the two clauses.

since

· Since he loves music so much, he decided to go to a conservatory.

· They had to leave early since their train left at 8.30.

'Since' means the same as because. 'Since' tends to be used in more informal spoken English.

Important note: "Since" when used as a conjunction is typically used to refer to a period of time, while "because" implies a cause or reason.

as long as

· As long as you have the time, why don't you come for dinner?

'As long as' means the same as because. 'As long as' tends to be used in more informal spoken English.

as

· As the test is difficult, you had better get some sleep.

'As' means the same as because. 'As' tends to be used in more formal, written English.

due to the fact that

· We will be staying for an extra week due to the fact that we haven not yet finished.

'Due to the fact that' means the same as because. 'Due to the fact that' is generally used in very formal, written English.

because of (+ noun/-ing)

· I love living in Australia because of the weather

as a result

· He didn’t turn up for the exam. As a result, he failed

the course

‘As a result’ is used to introduce a result and consequence.

consequently

· The footballers played badly and consequently they lost the game.

‘Consequently’ is used to introduce a result and consequence

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